The car industry is dominated by internal combustion engines run on fossil fuels in large part because modern battery technology cannot match the energy density of petroleum based fuels.Researchers are continually studying battery technology to push the envelope forward on battery technology. Many of the batteries found in advanced electronics are based on lithium ion technology. Cell Phones, laptops and electric in vehicles rely on Li-ion cells. Unfortunately, scientists estimate the theoretical ceiling for Li-ion technology will only squeeze out 30% more power from the technology, which will not be enough to revolutionize either the electronics or transportation industries.
As research continues into incrementally improving Li-ion technology, batteries based on other electrodes is advancing. Lithium-Sulfur batteries, for example, can carry much energy in a single charge than Li-ion batteries are theoretically capable of holding five times as much energy as Li-ion batteries. Small specially engineered test cells the size of coins are already capable of performance on par with Lithium-ion batteries. Scaling up the technology will create more problems with degradation of the battery and its capacity to hold a charge. Currently, lithium-sulfur batteries are not commercially available.